By Ragnar Hanas
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Additional info for Type 1 Diabetes in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults: How to Become an Expert on Your Own Diabetes, Second Edition by Ragnar Hanas (2004-02-02)
It has the same effect whether injected into subcutaneous tissue or into the muscle. 36 Type 1 Diabetes in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults Mini-dose glucagon A small dose of glucagon has been effective in treating mild or impending hypoglycaemia associated with gastroenteritis or refusal to eat. 345 If, after 30 minutes, the blood glucose was essentially unchanged, the initial dose was doubled. 3-5 mmol/l (60-90 mg/dl) within 30 minutes, and with a duration of effect of around one hour. Approximately 50% of the children needed more than one dose.
The hormones adrenaline and glucagon (see page 33) will give signals to the liver to release glucose from the glycogen stores. In this situation, however, the starvation takes place in the midst of plenty. The bloodstream already contains an excess of glucose, which is being passed out into the urine. Inside the cells, fatty acids are being produced. These are then transformed into ketones in the liver (“diabetes ketones”), and the ketones are also passed out into the urine. When insulin is supplied, the cells can function properly again and this “vicious cycle” will be broken.
However, the insulin level will never go right down, as a low level of basal insulin is needed to take account of the glucose coming from the reserve stores in the liver between meals and during the night. ) How your body works 23 Islets of Langerhans Islet of Langerhans If you look at an islet of Langerhans through a microscope, you will find it contains beta cells, which produce insulin, and alpha cells, which produce glucagon. Both of these hormones are secreted directly into the blood. The beta cells contain a sort of “built-in” blood glucose meter.