The Enzymes, Vol. 20: Mechanisms of Catalysis, 3rd Edition by Paul S. Sigman

By Paul S. Sigman

Summarizes the advances in enzymology over the past 50 years. The booklet provides up to date reports on cofactor and steel ion catalysis in enzymes, on unfastened radical reactions in enzymes, and at the chemistry of P-450s. It emphasizes phosphoryl move reactions.

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Extra info for The Enzymes, Vol. 20: Mechanisms of Catalysis, 3rd Edition

Example text

Note the lower amplitude for formation of the intermediate in the simulation in Fig. 8B. The same two simulations are shown superimposed in Fig. 8C, where a fivefold higher scaling factor (extinction coefficient) was used for the intermediate in the simulation involving the slower rate for k 2 . This example illustrates clearly that the two pathways are indistinguishable unless the absolute concentration of the intermediate is known. The difficulty arises when the intermediate is unstable and its absolute concentration cannot be determined.

The concentration dependence reflects changes in the kinetics of binding and can reveal the presence of steps subsequent to binding that limit the rate of the observed reaction. The rate of binding is expected to increase linearly with increasing concentration of substrate with no signs of curvature. Curvature in the concentration dependence of the rate of a reaction is indicative of a two-step mechanism approaching a maximum rate that is limited by a first-order isomerization of the enzyme-substrate complex.

The rise and fall of the intermediate species, E*S,will be described by two exponential terms, one with a negative amplitude defining the rise and one with a positive amplitude defining the fall. At high substrate concentration (Fig. S is large, but the rate of reaction is too fast to be observed, leading to collapse of the kinetics to resemble a one-step reaction. X is still there, but it is extremely short. X. Stated in other terms, the observation of a lag in the kinetics implies that there are at least two steps in a reaction sequence that are comparable (within a factor of 10 in rate).

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