Methods and Instrumentations: Results and Recent by A. S. Marfunin (auth.), Prof. Dr. A. S. Marfunin (eds.)

By A. S. Marfunin (auth.), Prof. Dr. A. S. Marfunin (eds.)

All present introductory reports of mineralogy are written accord­ ing to an identical set of rules, also known as the "Dana method of Mineralogy". Even glossy complex handbooks, that are cer­ tainly worthwhile, comprise easy information on minerals and are primarily descriptive. whilst easy info at the chemistry, constitution, optical and actual homes, special gains and para­ genesis of 200-400 minerals is gifted, then there's essentially no extra house on hand to incorporate new rules and ideas in accordance with contemporary mineral reviews. a potential technique to this limitation will be to give a ebook starting the place introductory textbooks finish for these already famil­ iar with the basic recommendations. one of these quantity will be adapted to experts in all fields of technology and undefined, attracted to the newest leads to mineralogy. This strategy will be referred to as complex Mineralogy. the following, an test has been made to survey the present percentages and goals in mineral mater investigations, together with the most features of all of the equipment, an important difficulties and subject matters of mineralogy, and comparable reviews. the person volumes are composed of brief, condensed chap­ ters. every one bankruptcy offers in an entire, albeit condensed, shape particular difficulties, tools, theories, and instructions of investigations, and estimates their value and strategic place in technology and industry.

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Details of the history of crystallography can be found in a recent Historical Atlas by 1. Lima-de-Faria. The power of a structure analysis of a synthetic crystal or a mineral and the reliability and accuracy of the results depend on many factors: sample quality, radiation source, apparatus and techniques available, especially for the measurement of the diffracted intensities. The first problem of a structural study is the determination of the symmetry and the lattice parameters of the crystal. The next step is the derivation of an atomic model.

For example, the transformation from a disordered state to an ordered state can cause a reduction in the symmetry of a mineral (monoclinic to triclinic for alkali feldspars and cubic to tetragonal for some sulfides). In minerals such as plagioclase and sulfides, particular atom distributions can cause superstructures, resulting in the appearance of additional reflections. The position and intensity of these reflections depend on the domain structure. X-ray structural analysis has been used to study cation distributions in pyroxene, amphibole, garnet, spinel, and other minerals.

This makes the data array even better. The only difficulty encountered in low-temperature measurements is a phase transition in the sample. If the investigator is concerned with the atomic structure of a hightemperature phase, he has to work in the temperature range where this phase exists. The Phase Problem of Crystallography From the hundreds or even thousands of measured intensities Ihkl of a crystal, a set of observed structure amplitudes IFhk11 is derived, which forms the experimental basis for the determination of the crystal structure.

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