By Michael A. Liberman
This e-book examines key techniques and basic mechanisms for varied combustion and combustion-related phenomena in gaseous flamable mix. It presents easy wisdom of burning techniques and mechanisms of response wave propagation.
Read or Download Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of Combustion: Explosion, Flame, Detonation PDF
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Extra info for Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of Combustion: Explosion, Flame, Detonation
The following reactions may be written, violating no law of thermodynamics or stoichiometry: 1 1 1 CðsÞ þ O2 þ O2 ! CO2 ! CO þ O2 : 2 2 2 The overall process merely carries 1/2 mol O2 along ‘‘for the ride’’ with no thermodynamic change. 1. Notice that the heat of formation of atoms is positive if the reference state of the atom is diatomic molecule. This occurs because strong chemical bonds must be broken to form the atoms; the process is endothermic. Notice also, that the compounds with the highest negative heat of formation in the C-H-O system are CO2 and H2 O; the formation process for these compounds is exothermic.
18. The Joule cycle (1-2-3-4-1) on PV diagram consists of: adiabatic processes (1-2) and (3-4) and two transitions at constant pressure (2-3) and (4-1). Calculate work and efficiency of the process. 1 Introduction and Definitions We shall often be concerned about the atomic weight and molecular weight of atoms and molecules. For example, relative to the carbon, the number 12 is the number of particles in the nucleus, consisting in this case of six positively charged protons and six neutral neutrons.
14 1 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics We still lack a thermodynamic potential with respect to another pair of variables: P, T. 2) PdV ¼ dðPVÞ À VdP, take dðPVÞ to the left-hand side of the equation, and obtain dG ¼ ÀSdT þ VdP (1:6:7) with a new quantity, G ¼ GðT; PÞ G ¼ E À TS þ PV ¼ F þ PV ¼ H À TS; (1:6:8) called the Gibbs free energy. It is clear that if temperature and pressure of the system are constant, then the state corresponding to minimum of the Gibbs free energy is the stable equilibrium state.