By William Whyte
A cleanroom is a contamination-controlled surroundings and is vital within the commercial manufacture of many digital, semiconductor, optical, pharmaceutical and scientific items. using cleanrooms for the manufacture of a giant diversity of goods similar to microprocessors, CD avid gamers, lasers, prescribed drugs and clinical units keeps to develop and lots of businesses are utilizing cleanrooms for the 1st time. whilst, new expertise items which can in basic terms be produced in cleanrooms are being built. This accomplished evaluate of the basics, layout, checking out and operation of cleanroom structures presents beginners with a advent to this state of the art know-how and execs with an available connection with the present criteria. Readers will benifit from the author's 35 years of expertise in cleanroom expertise R&D, consultancy and instructing. The textual content is complementary to the constitution and content material of Whyte's personal and lots of in-house cleanroom classes within the electronics and pharmaceutical industries. · Complementary to the hugely profitable Cleanroom layout, moment version and the impending Cleanroom checking out and operating by means of a similar writer · provides the basics and most modern criteria for the layout, validation, trying out and operating of cleanroom platforms Pitched at introductory point and adapted to fulfil the educational specifications of scientists and engineers new to cleanroom expertise
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Additional info for Introduction to Contamination Control and Cleanroom Technology
2 control are usually of two types, either manual o r automatic. Analytical Both have advantages as well as disadvantages. The advantage methods of a manual method is the fact that the contaminants can normally be observed with the aid of a microscope. Tradition- 42 Testin,methods Table 10. Methods of contamination analysis for different sample types Manual methods Automatic methods Air and other gases Surfaces Media and other liquid products Air and other gases Media and other liquid products ally a manual method is performed in such a way that a given volume of the test sample (air or some other gas, water or some liquid product) is allowed to pass through a fine membrane filter which traps the particles present in the test sample.
In this way it is possible to keep the collected Contaminants as far away from the critical parts of the total process equipment as possible. If, even after such preventive measures have been taken, the problem with contaminants created within the system still exists, it may be necessary to consider stopping the production process after a predetermined time period for cleaning and in some cases sterilization as well. After cleaning and sterilization the process can be restarted again. The transfer of contaminants from the outer environment into the inner and more critical process environment is one of the most commonly encountered routes of contamination of a product.
Before entering the measuring chamber the air is allowed to pass through a vessel containing vaporized alcohol which is maintained at a temperature which approximates that at which it condenses. When the particles in the air enter the alcohol chamber, To pump Photo detector Laser light source Air inlet Alcohol container Figure 8. Schematic representation of a Condensation Nucleus Counter (CNC) Measurement of hyJienicparameters in a cleanroom 51 particles which are colder than the alcohol vapor will cause the vaporized alcohol to condense on the particle surfaces.