Hegel and Mind: Rethinking Philosophical Psychology by Richard Dien Winfield

By Richard Dien Winfield

Exploring Hegel's philosophical psychology to discover practicable treatments to the manager dilemmas plaguing modern philosophy of brain, Hegel and brain exposes why brain can't be an epistemological origin nor lowered to discursive realization nor modelled after computing machines.

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That subjectivity is further jeopardized by Searle's employment of efficient causality in characterizing how the brain makes mind possible, as well as how the mind affects the body. If the brain is the cause of the mind, the brain has no intrinsic connection to mind, for an effect may owe its existence to its cause, but otherwise cause and effect are indifferent to one another, so long as causality is solely efficient and not formal or final. 27 As effect of the brain, mind is something separate, and its difference from the brain leaves undetermined why mind has the psychological features that distinguish it from neurological activity.

Although causal relations between sense organs and physical objects cannot themselves enable sensations to refer to what produce them, unless there are physically induced modifications of sensibility to which mind can relate, mind has nothing with which to apprehend phenomena. Conversely, worldly action becomes unthinkable since the mind/body dualism leaves incomprehensible how a mind can affect a body of its own and thereby anything else. With no way of having a tangible, object-like presence distinguishable from other objects, nor any way of making its own activity appear to itself or to others, mind can hardly be self-aware, let alone aware of other things and other minds.

Solipsism becomes unavoidable, for if mind can be without anything non mental, nothing in mind can secure a bridge to what lies beyond. Mind is left communing with itself, stuck in meditation, for no mental feature is inherently connected to something other and the incommensurability of the nonmental makes interaction an insoluble mystery. Yet even solipsism's sole certainty of self-knowledge is doubtful, when the individuality of the self has no real foothold in the physical world. First, as Kant argues in his "Refutation of Idealism",2 the very temporality of mental life becomes inexplicable if mental contents have no abiding background to manifest the temporal unity of their succession.

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