Health Impacts of Large Releases of Radionuclides - by CIBA Foundation Symposium

By CIBA Foundation Symposium

This up to the moment account examines how radionuclides have an effect on human overall healthiness. It explores how radionuclides go back and forth via a number of meals chains and the way they're transported during the terrestrial and aquatic environments.

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Sample text

Such cheeses can have comparatively high radiocaesium levels because manufacturing involves evaporation of the whey to dryness, which increases the radiocaesium activity concentration by a factor of about 10. Recently, a detailed study has been conducted to compare the importance of different food sources in determining the radiocaesium ingestion by village residents in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine and Russia (ECP9, Strand et a1 1996). The study combined measurements of contamination levels in foodstuffs with dietary surveys and whole-body measurements.

Hove & Hansen (1993) reported that the presence of one, two or three boli reduced radiocaesium activity concentrations in sheep milk by 35%, 60% and 85%, respectively. The reduction effect persisted for 90 days, but with a reduced efficiency. Recently, SEMI-NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS 35 additions of a wax coating to the boli have been made to delay the onset of binder release and maximize the reduction effect in the period prior to the recovery of treated animals (Hansen et a1 1996). 5% AFCF has also been developed for use in mountain pastures in Norway.

Therefore, there are different chemical forms at different sites within the contaminated area. The most unavailable forms were deposited within the 30 km zone, and the most available forms were transported further away (to western Europe, for example). This is one of the reasons why the transfer factors that determined the bioavailability in westem Europe were different to those observed in areas such as the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The mobile forms of 137Csin the 30 km exclusion zone around Chemobyl varied between 20-300/; whereas, these values were 4&60% in the Bryansk region of Russia and as high as 85% in Cumbria (Hilton et al 1992).

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