Ground Rules in Psychotherapy & Counselling by Robert Langs

By Robert Langs

The writer examines the difficulty of obstacles in psychoanalytic inspiration, near to Freud's papers on analytic strategy. the writer then elucidates his personal procedure, drawing upon his earlier study into evolutionary and adaptive tactics. through the e-book, Langs exhibits how theoretical rules will be grounded in medical perform.

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The relativelyfluid, butfirmly held, ground rules 1. The absence of censorship • The patient is advised to say whatever comes to mind, without restriction. 2. The fundamental rule offree association • The patient is advised to let his or her mind wander about without consciously predetermined guidance. 3. The use of the couch • In dynamic forms of psychotherapy, the couch is recommended because it represents the search for unconscious motives, conflicts, meaning, and experience. For therapists and counsellors who do not have a couch in their office, the face-to-face mode is, in general, an acceptable alternative.

To identify the key factors in the framing attitudes and behav­ iours of both patients and therapists. In this regard, the particu­ lar effects of the evolved design of the emotion-processing mind and of the fact of human mortality are afforded special attention here. The much-neglected relationship between death anxiety and the framing of psychotherapy is explored and clarified in some detail. NATURE FRAMING NATURE 23 9. To integrate and extend my considerable but scattered writings on rules, frames, and boundaries, synthesizing these ideas into a comprehensive viewpoint (Langs, 1976, 1979, 1982, 1992, 1993,1995).

A sound-proofed consultation room and, if feasible, a separate exit from the consultation room to the hallway. • Modest decor, but no reading materials (their selection is self-revealing). • A telephone that is turned off during sessions. • A bare desk, chairs, a couch for patients to lie on, no diplomas on the walls, and no bookcases or visible books. • Nothing personal or self-revealing in the way of physical objects or mementos. 44 THE UNIVERSAL ATTRIBUTES OF THERAPY FRAMES 2. The time, length, andfrequency of sessions • A set day and time for all sessions, including the consultation session.

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