Family Life in The Middle Ages by Linda E. Mitchell

By Linda E. Mitchell

Используя региональный подход в исследовании средневековой семейной жизни, автор в первой части книги даёт обзор не только разнообразных семейных отношений, но и структуры семей и обозначение категорий групп, попадающих под это определение в различных культурах: в позднеантичном римском семействе, средневековой еврейской семье, семействе на византийском Востоке, средневековом Западе и в мусульманском мире.
В следующих частях рассматривается повседневная жизнь семейств различных социальных классов и рода деятельности – крестьян, ростовщиков, ремесленников, торговцев. Показано также поэтапное изменение внутрисемейного статуса членов семейства – от ребенка, до жениха/невесты, мужа/жены, отца/матери, зятя/невестки и т.п. Уделено также внимание темам отношения к детям, отношения церкви к семье и маргинальным семьям, возникавшим по разным причинам – идеологическим ( например, в случае еретических движений катаров или бегинов), военных действий или стихийных бедствий (эпидемии, голод и т.п.)Образцы сканов:

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Marriage was also much more informal in Celtic society, with different kinds of relationships ranging from formal marriage to temporary concubinage (a system of informal, but often permanent, union between a man and a woman) being considered legitimate and the children of those unions being incorporated into the family structure. Even though the conversion of many Britons and Irish to Christianity did affect these structures, they remained essentially unchanged until the Middle Ages. Germanic societies were closer to traditional Celtic societies than they were to the Roman model.

He was killed in 415, however, and Galla Placidia was ransomed back to the Romans. Her brother Honorius, who was western emperor, then married her to Constantius III, whom he The Late Roman Family and Transition to the Middle Ages 17 made co-emperor in the west in 421. Constantius died less than a year later, and popular opinion turned against Galla Placidia, forcing her to leave Rome for Constantinople, the capital of the eastern Roman Empire, where her other brother, Arcadius, had ruled. When Honorius died in 423, Galla Placidia returned to the west and became co-ruler with her son Valentinian III.

The church’s marriage laws were also useful for controlling the lay population, especially kings who had few enough appropriate marriage partners as it was, let alone finding one to whom they were not related. Church law even defined legitimacy of children differently from secular law. In many regions of western Europe, such as England, children who were born out of wedlock but whose parents then married could be legitimated and considered heirs at common law. Church law considered any children born into illegally constructed marriages to be illegitimate forever, even if the parents subsequently married with the church’s permission.

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