By Donald T. Campbell, Julian Stanley
A survey drawn from social-science examine which bargains with correlational, ex put up facto, actual experimental, and quasi-experimental designs and makes methodological thoughts. Bibliogs.
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Additional resources for Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research
In this way, not only is generalizability increased, but in addi tion, the effect of X is replicated in four dif ferent fashions : 02> 01, 02> 04, 05> 06, and 05> 03• The actual instabilities of experimentation are such that if these com parisons are in agreement, the strength of the inference is greatly increased. Another indirect contribution to the generalizability of experimental findings is also made, in that through experience with Design 5 in any given research area one learns the general likelihood of testing-by-X interactions, and thus is better able to interpret past and fu ture Design 4s.
CAMPBELL AND JULIAN C. , where feasible. , the when and to whom of measurement), even though he lacks the full control over the scheduling of experimental stimuli (the when and to whom of exposure and the ability to randomize exposures) which makes a true experiment possible. Collec tively, such situations can be regarded as quasi-experimental designs. One purpose of this chapter is to encourage the utilization of such quaji-experiments and to increase awareness of the kinds of settings in which opportunities to employ them occur.
STANLEY the tables and chairs which we "see" before us are not "confirmed" or "proven" by the visual evidence, but are "merely" hypotheses about external objects not as yet discon firmed by the multiple probes of the visual system. There is a grain of truth in these reluctances. Varying degrees of "confirmation" are conferred upon a theofY through the num ber of plausible rival hypotheses available to account for the data. " Presumably, at any stage of accumulation of evidence, even for the most advanced science, there are numerous possible theories compatible with the data, particularly if all theories in volving complex contingencies be allowed.