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Extra info for Essentials of psychology, Edition: 2nd
See Closer Look Box 1-1 for an explanation of how data from multiple studies can be analyzed using statistical techniques. The last task in the fourth stage of the research process is to report results. By informing fellow scholars of their discoveries, researchers build upon and refine one another's work, and the understanding of psychology is enriched. Yet, a psychologist's research findings are not uncritically accepted by others. At scientific conventions where research is often first reported and in scientific journals where studies are ultimately published, all stages in the research process are scrutinized for possible errors and oversights.
1-3 Some Myths and Facts about Animal Research 16 CHAPTER 1 Psychology as a Science >Closer Look " Box1 1 How Can Meta-Analysis Improve Our Understanding of Multiple Studies? O ne of the problems in science is that of contradictory findings from one study to the next. If,for example, seven studies find that one type of psychotherapy is effective in treating depression, while four studies find that it is ineffective, what conclusions should be drawn? In the past, researchers often used the "majority rules" approach to resolve such controversies.
Finally, the fourth research stage involves collecting and analyzing data and reporting results. There are three basic techniques of data collection: (1) self-reports, (2) direct observations, and (3) archival information. Collecting data using self-reports allows researchers to measure important subjective states such as people's perceptions, emotions, or attitudes. , 1998), many researchers prefer to directly observe people's behavior, recording its quantity and direction of change over time.