By William Hughes
This introductory textual content addresses the rules and mechanisms of toxicology as utilized to environmentally-encountered poisonous brokers. every one bankruptcy concludes with evaluation questions that could be used for scholar self-testing and issues lined comprise dose reaction, risks and possibility overview, selection of toxicity, insecticides, metals, plastics, natural solvents, environmental cancer causing agents, teratogens and mutagens.
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Additional info for Essentials Of Environmental Toxicology
Repeated exposure to high concentrations of either the vapor or liquid forms of carbon tetrachloride is capable of producing chronic and systemic toxicity, which is irreversible. Pathologies associated with chronic toxicity include kidney and liver damage, as well as severe CNS depression, which can lead to death. Toxicity is also classified according to the timing between exposure to the toxicant and the first appearance of symptoms associated with toxicity. Immediate toxicity results when the symptoms occur rapidly within seconds or minutes following exposure to the toxicant.
A. B. True False 7. It is estimated that 10% of hazardous wastes are disposed of in an environmentally safe manner. A. B. True False 8. In the human body, physiological processes ultimately take place at which level? A. B. C. D. E. Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism 9. List five disciplines that contribute to a more complete understanding of toxicology. 10. Construct a diagram that shows the relationship between hazardous wastes, and morbidity and mortality. Chapter 2 Toxicological Concepts O bjectives ¢ Define toxicity ¢ Discuss the different types of toxicity ¢ Describe toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics ¢ Explain how toxicants are classified ¢ Outline the steps involved in toxicity testing K eywords absorption acute toxicity biotransformation chronic toxicity delayed toxicity distribution elimination end effect immediate toxicity in vitro in vivo linear dose sequence local toxicity logarithmic dose sequence storage systemic toxicity toxicity testing toxicodynamics toxicokinetics 19 20 Essentials of Environmental Toxicology Toxicity Toxicity, the state of being poisonous, is also a general term used to indicate adverse effects or symptoms produced by poisons or toxicants in organisms.
Although the skin is the most obvious organ of the integumentary system, this system also includes hair, fingernails and toenails, and mammary glands. Skin plays an important role to (1) provide a barrier against the entrance of toxicants, (2) protect against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation, (3) prevent the entrance of microorganisms, (4) assist in the biotransformation or metabolic detoxification of toxicants, (5) eliminate toxicants or their metabolites via sweat or other glandular secretions, (6) regulate body temperature, and (7) house sensory receptors for temperature, pressure, and pain.