By Donald F. Gustafson (eds.)
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Motive-in-general is a very difficult topic which I do not want to discuss at any length. Consider the statement that one motive for my signing a petition was admiration for its promoter, X. ' and describe what he did in an admiring way. ' It is too complicated. The account of motive popularised by Professor Ryle does not appear satisfactory. He recommends construing 'he boasted from vanity' as saying 'he boasted . . '2 This passage is rather curious and roundabout in its way of putting what it seems to say, but I can't understand it unless it implies that a man could not be said to have boasted from vanity unless he always behaved vainly, or at least very often did so.
Now the most striking thing about these four is the way in which good and evil are involved in them. g. if I am grateful to someone, it is because he has done me some good, or at least I think he has, and I cannot show gratitude by something that I intend to harm him. In remorse, I hate some good things for myself; I could not express remorse by getting myself plenty of enjoyments, or for something that I did not find bad. If I do something out of revenge which is in fact advantageous rather than harmful to my enemy, my action, in its description of being advantageous to him, is involuntary.
Accepting, as he does, the ideo-motor theory, he writes: 18 'An idea of a state 12 J. P. Guilford, General Psychology, pp. 265-69. 18 Collected Essays, I, pp. 275-6. 48 ESSAYS IN PHILOSOPHICAL PSYCHOLOGY of my salivary glands or sexual organs will produce its existence in fact. We hear of those who can blush, shiver, sweat, or shed tears if their mind is set on it. And if we think of various sensations in parts of our bodies, we can produce them at will, and can induce at our pleasure other bodily alterations through emotional excitement.