Endless Universe: Beyond the Big Bang -- Rewriting Cosmic by Paul J. Steinhardt, Neil Turok

By Paul J. Steinhardt, Neil Turok

World-renowned scientists current an audacious new imaginative and prescient of the cosmos that “steals the thunder from the massive Bang theory.” —Wall highway Journal

The vast Bang theory—widely considered as the top reason behind the foundation of the universe—posits that area and time sprang into being approximately 14 billion years in the past in a sizzling, increasing fireball of approximately endless density. during the last 3 many years the speculation has been many times revised to handle such matters as how galaxies and stars first shaped and why the growth of the universe is rushing up this present day. additionally, an evidence has but to be stumbled on for what prompted the massive Bang within the first place.

In Endless Universe, Paul J. Steinhardt and Neil Turok, either distinct theoretical physicists, current a daring new cosmology. Steinhardt and Turok “contend that what we predict of because the second of production used to be easily a part of an enormous cycle of great collisions among our universe and a parallel world” (Discover). They recount the amazing advancements in astronomy, particle physics, and superstring thought that shape the foundation for his or her groundbreaking “Cyclic Universe” conception. based on this concept, the massive Bang was once now not the start of time however the bridge to a earlier packed with perpetually repeating cycles of evolution, every one followed through the production of latest topic and the formation of latest galaxies, stars, and planets.

Endless Universe offers solutions to longstanding issues of the large Bang version, whereas supplying a provocative new view of either the prior and the way forward for the cosmos.  it's a “theory that can remedy the cosmic mystery” (USA Today).

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That is, two protons which are sufficiently close together will feel a nuclear force which is much stronger than their electrostatic repulsion. But the strong force is felt only when two particles are very close to each other. If two protons are separated by a distance of about 10-I 3 em, then the strong force is 100 times larger than the electrical force. But if the protons are moved apart to 1o- I2 em, then the strong force decreases by a factor of about 10 5 while the electrical force decreases only by 102 .

If the source is emitting radiation at a given wavelength (say, A. 0 ) and is moving towards us with some speed (say, v), then we will detect the radiation at a shorter wavelength (say, A. 1). Similarly, if the source is moving away from us, we will detect the radiation at a longer wavelength A. 2 . Of course the frequency of the wave will increase when the wavelength decreases and vice versa. When the wavelength increases, it is termed 'redshift'; when it decreases, we call it 'blueshift'. 9 The Doppler effect may be thought of as arising due to the compression of the wave crest in the direction of motion of the source.

Particles like protons, neutrons (and a vast majority of other particles seen in high energy collisions) are made of different combinations of these quarks. For example, a proton is made of two up-quarks and one down-quark, while a neutron is made of two down-quarks and one up-quark. Since all matter has protons and neutrons we might say that - indirectly - all matter contains up-quarks and down-quarks. The other four types of quarks are not present in the normal state of matter. However, they are needed as constituents of several other elementary particles which are produced in high energy collisions.

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