Elitism, Populism, and European Politics by Jack Hayward

By Jack Hayward

Within the Nineteen Nineties there was an more and more frequent feel that the governing elites are wasting contact with their peoples. leaders are not any longer capable of count number upon the acquiescence in their electorate to which they have been accustomed. The disenchantment has led to the lack of public aid for the political associations of either the person ecu kingdom states and of the ecu Union.
Taking elitism and populism because the contrary poles among which the political leaders have to steer, the individuals successively think about why there seems to were a degeneration within the caliber of elite leaders, with civil societies turning opposed to their governments and the elite mediators among the powerless and the strong. The agenda-setting position of the media, the rival appeals to illustration and referendum, the issues encountered by means of political events and organised pursuits, and the tensions among public call for and financial constraints are all mentioned. The chapters recommend that the necessity to lead from front instead of from at the back of is still fundamental in elitist democracies.

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The first gives priority to statistics, the second to will',43 and Chirac clearly subordinated rational calculation resulting in political resignation to an ambitious assertion of political will. In arousing expectations he would find difficult to satisfy, Chirac deliberately sacrificed the capacity to exercise power to the urge to win power. Encouraged by Philippe Seguin, an admirer of that unscrupulous but accomplished populist (and President of the Second Republic) Louis-Napoleon, he sought to placate those of his followers who disliked a single European currency by proposing that there should be a referendum before the decision was made.

26 In the search for a scapegoat for either the reality or the feeling of popular relative deprivation, the early twentieth-century American populist Huey Long generalized from his campaign against the Standard Oil Company: 'Corporations are the finest political enemies in the world . 28 Mrs Thatcher was able to develop a successful populist onslaught on a variety of established British institutions, including many associated with traditional conservatism, such as the Established Church, as well as those that were hostile, such as trade unions or Labour-controlled local authorities, or those who sought to be neutral, like the BBC and the universities, but were resented as harbouring a tolerant liberal cosmopolitanism.

25. ), Populism: Its Meaning and National Characteristics (London: Macmillan, 1969), 157-8; cf. 156. 26. ), Populism, 167-70. 27. Quoted by Canovan, Populism, 152, from T. Harry Williams, Huey Long (London: Thames & Hudson, 1969), 416. 28. Canovan, Populism, 218. 29. Ronald Inglehart, Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), 360; cf. 336 ff. 30. ), Governing the New Europe (Oxford: Polity Press, 1995), 175. ' West European Politics, 10/1 (Jan. 1987), 7688.

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