Ecological Systems of the Geobiosphere: 2 Tropical and by Professor Dr. Heinrich Walter, Professor Dr. Siegmar-W.

By Professor Dr. Heinrich Walter, Professor Dr. Siegmar-W. Breckle (auth.)

In quantity 1 of this four-volume sequence, ecological difficulties of a common nature have been mentioned from a world standpoint. Familiarity with this can be crucial for an entire realizing of the extra really good therapy during this and next volumes, for no comparable technique is to be present in different ecological handbooks for rookies. This current quantity offers intimately with the designated ecological relation­ ships of the tropical and subtropical zonobiomes I to III. so much ecologists continue from the foundation in their event within the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere. for this reason, many ecological writings express a definite one-sidedness and there's a chance that generalizations made are usually not greatly acceptable. to prevent this, specific emphasis is laid, during this vol­ urne, at the distinct ecological positive factors and the features of the trop­ ical and subtropical areas. extra in particular, we deal not just with the connection of the euclimatope to zonal soils and zonal crops, but additionally concentrate on azonal stipulations proven in pedobiomes and within the altitudinal belts of mountains, the orobiomes. during this and the next volumes a similar easy scheme is in treating each one zonobiome: 1. weather; 2. soils; three. manufacturers; four. consum­ ers; five. decomposers; 6. ecosystems; 7. sub department into biomes; eight. oro­ biomes; nine. pedobiomes and 10. zonoecotones. the place it has seemed expedient, although, now we have sometimes deviated from this scheme (see Deserts D, F, G and H).

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Fluvic acids and brown humic acids predominate. Finely spread ferric oxide covers the small amount of humus and the soil is red. ). The generally great poverty of the soils raises the question of the origin of the reserves of nutrient elements contained in the phytomass. This accumulation could have occurred only during the primary succession, when the soil cover was very shallow and the plant roots were in immediate contact with the weathering mother rock. The accumulation of nutrient reserves proceeded as weathering advanced and the reserves were retained in the growing phyto- 18 Zonobiome I: Equatorial ZB with Diurnal Climate (Perhumid Zonobiome) mass, even when the soils became deeper and increasingly poor; the only additional source of such nutrients was the atmosphere.

In the rain-forest ripe fmits were to be found in every month and the seeds were not dispersed by wind. In the dry forest ripening of the fmits took place at the end of the long drought period and in 31 % of the species the seeds were wind-dispersed. It can be seen that in this rain-forest phenology is more markedly seasonal than had been expected. It can be assumed that species which show regular periodicities must be very sensitive to annual variations in dimatic factors, such as small changes in day length - which could perhaps influence flower formation or small changes in temperature or rainfall.

They all died in 1952-53. The seeds germinated, however, and in 1958 we were able to observe young stands. The dry period had no efiect in the 10wer part oi the river valleys which are a1ways supp1ied with sufficient water. Here, the Bambusa stands neither flowered nor died. 21. Walter) triggered off by the unfavourable water conditions. The reported periodicity would be understandable if the environmental fac- 31 Producers tors were correlated with a solar rhythm. Alternatively, the long intervals between flowering periods might be connected with the necessity to store considerable food reserves for flower formation.

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