By J. Primack
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Extra resources for Dark Matter and Structure Formation
1993, Zurek et al. 6. Various redshift surveys give a wide range of values for σ(1h−1 Mpc) ∼ 300 − 750 km s−1 , with the most salient feature being the presence or absence of rich clusters of galaxies; for example, the IRAS galaxies, which are not found in clusters, have σ(1h−1 Mpc) ≈ 320 km s−1 (Fisher et al. 1994), while the northern CfA2 sample, with several rich clusters, has much larger σ than the SSRS2 sample, with only a few relatively poor clusters (Marzke et al. 1995; Somerville, Primack, & Nolthenius 1996).
The much larger Super-Kamiokande detector is now operating, and we should know by about the end of 1996 whether the Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino data that suggested νµ → ντ oscillations will be confirmed and extended. Starting in 1997 there will be a long-baseline neutrino oscillation disappearance experiment to look for νµ → ντ with a beam of νµ from the KEK accelerator directed at the Super-Kamiokande detector, with more powerful Fermilab-Soudan, KEK-Super-Kamiokande, and possibly CERN-Gran Sasso long-baseline experiments later.
The larger the symmetry group, the wider the scope of the connections established between different elementary particles or other quantum states. The basic pattern of progress was to find the right Lie group and understand its role — SU(2) as the group connecting different states in the cases of spin and isospin; SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) as the dynamical gauge symmetry group of the “Standard Model” of particle physics, connecting states without a gauge boson to states of the same particles including a gauge boson.