Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 231-239 - The neurobiology

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The final formula for the twin correlation is simply the sum of these contributions: rtwin = ga2 + c2 The first part of the correlation, ga2, is the contribution of additive polygenic factors. The second part, c2, is the contribution of the shared environment. , no double-headed arrow) between them. Substituting the appropriate value for g in the above general formula gives the expression for the correlation of each type of twins: for MZ pairs, rMZ = a2 + c2 and for DZ pairs, rDZ = ½a2 + c2 The third equation implied by the model is that for the total phenotypic variance, V P.

Citizens are adoptees. Historically, adoption studies have played a prominent role in the assessment of genetic variation in human and animal traits. Adopting families in which at least one member is not biologically related to the others offer a number of potential comparisons that can be genetically informative. Thus, the correlation of Questions, Models, and Methods in Psychiatric Genetics 47 adoptees with their biological parents is a reflection of the genetic contribution of parents to their children.

In every case, the precise pattern of correlations to be expected depends on the exact contributions of the various genetic and environmental factors and, in the case of genetic effects, on the exact pattern of allele frequencies, and on the magnitudes of the specific additive, dominance, and epistatic effects at individual genes and gene combinations. First Estimates of Genetic and Environmental Effects on Stature Figure 2–8 presents the scatter diagrams and correlations for stature in MZ and DZ twins.

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