By Sven B. Erlander

Within the management development at Linkopi ¨ ng college now we have considered one of Oscar Reutersvard’ ¨ s “Impossible Figures” in 3 dimensions. I name it “Perspectives of Science”. while considered from a speci c aspect in house there's order and constitution within the three-dimensional gure. whilst seen from different issues there's illness and no constitution. If a speci c scienti c paradigm is used, there's order and constitution; in a different way there's ailment and no constitution. My viewpoint in Transportation technology has fascinated by realizing the mathematical constitution and the good judgment underlying the alternative likelihood versions in universal use. My e-book with N. F. Stewart at the Gravity version (Erlander and Stewart 1990), was once written during this viewpoint. the current booklet stems from a similar wish to comprehend underlying assumptions and constitution. It investigateshow some distance a brand new manner of de ning Cost-Minimizing habit can take us.Itturnsoutthatall commonlyusedchoiceprobabilitydistributionsoflogittype– log linear likelihood features – persist with from cost-minimizing habit de ned within the new approach. additionally a few new nested versions seem.

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**Extra resources for Cost-Minimizing Choice Behavior in Transportation Planning: A Theoretical Framework for Logit Models (Advances in Spatial Science)**

**Example text**

Vk C log G k /. Âvk C log G k /z2k H) kD1 K Y z1 pkk kD1 K Y z2 pkk ; kD1 and it follows that exp. Âvk C log G k // exp. G k / ; D PK pk D P K k k kD1 exp. Âvk C log G // kD1 exp. G / for some . ÂvK //. The generator function G can be specified in various ways to give different, dependent or independent, models. We give two examples. Âvk / Again the probability represents payoff (utility) maximizing behavior (Proposition 2). ˛m cQm . ˛ cQm . // m m exp. ckm / P : ckm / k exp. x/ D kD1 exp. 14) with costs ckm .

M1 =n; : : : ; mK =n/ where mk ; k D 1; : : : ; K; and n are integer numbers. 3) in Definition 1. Since p is assumed to be cost minimizing, it follows that K Y nOzk pk kD1 which can be written K X zOk log pk kD1 K Y nQz pk k ; kD1 K X zQk log pk : kD1 Hence, z D zQ is also an optimal solution of the linear program (because zO is optimal by assumption). Since zQk > 0; k D 1; : : : ; K, it follows from the complementary slackness theorem of linear programming that there are dual variables , and > 0, such that the dual constraints are satisfied with equality.

We arrive at the following definition of cost-minimizing behavior for the sample. Definition 5 (Cost-Minimizing Behavior for Samples of N Independent Decision Makers). d / is cost minimizing if and only if K X kD1 ck z1k Ä K X kD1 ck z2k H) K Y kD1 z1 pkk K Y z2 pkk : kD1 This is equivalent to Definition 1. 4). Hence, by defining cost-minimizing behavior for an N -sample of decision makers we obtain the choice probabilities for one single decision maker drawn at random from the population ˝. Thus AXIOM 1 together with AXIOM 2 determines the form of the probability distribution p completely.