Cost-Minimizing Choice Behavior in Transportation Planning: by Sven B. Erlander

By Sven B. Erlander

Within the management development at Linkopi ¨ ng college now we have considered one of Oscar Reutersvard’ ¨ s “Impossible Figures” in 3 dimensions. I name it “Perspectives of Science”. while considered from a speci c aspect in house there's order and constitution within the three-dimensional gure. whilst seen from different issues there's illness and no constitution. If a speci c scienti c paradigm is used, there's order and constitution; in a different way there's ailment and no constitution. My viewpoint in Transportation technology has fascinated by realizing the mathematical constitution and the good judgment underlying the alternative likelihood versions in universal use. My e-book with N. F. Stewart at the Gravity version (Erlander and Stewart 1990), was once written during this viewpoint. the current booklet stems from a similar wish to comprehend underlying assumptions and constitution. It investigateshow some distance a brand new manner of de ning Cost-Minimizing habit can take us.Itturnsoutthatall commonlyusedchoiceprobabilitydistributionsoflogittype– log linear likelihood features – persist with from cost-minimizing habit de ned within the new approach. additionally a few new nested versions seem.

Show description

Read or Download Cost-Minimizing Choice Behavior in Transportation Planning: A Theoretical Framework for Logit Models (Advances in Spatial Science) PDF

Best urban & regional books

New Directions in Economic Geography (New Horizons in Regional Science)

This crucial e-book explores unique and replacement instructions for monetary geography following the revolution brought on through the appearance of so-called 'new financial geography' (NEG). when, to some degree, the amount should be considered as a part of the inevitable artistic destruction of NEG concept, it does advertise the ongoing function of theoretical and empirical contributions inside of spatial financial research, during which the explanation of clinical research and financial good judgment retain a imperative position.

Applied Urban Economics, 1st Edition

This quantity is a follow-up to the sooner city Economics, quantity 2 of instruction manual of local and concrete Economics, edited through Edwin generators. the sooner quantity, released in 1987, focussed on city fiscal conception. This new guide, against this, makes a speciality of utilized city study. the variation is naturally in emphasis.

Hard Choices: Challenging the Singapore Consensus

Singapore is altering. The consensus that the PAP govt has built and maintained over 5 a long time is fraying. The assumptions that underpin Singaporean exceptionalism are not any longer authorized as simply and quite simply as ahead of. between those are the guidelines that the rustic is uniquely susceptible, that this vulnerability limits its coverage and political suggestions, that strong governance calls for a level of political consensus that standard democratic preparations can't produce, and that the country’s luck calls for a aggressive meritocracy followed by way of rather little source of revenue or wealth redistribution.

Airline Economics: An Empirical Analysis of Market Structure and Competition in the US Airline Industry

This e-book offers an unique empirical research of the industry constitution of airline urban pair markets, laying off new gentle at the workings of aggressive techniques among agencies. interpreting a cross-section people airline urban pairs, Tabacco proposes for the 1st time that the might be understood as a traditional oligopoly, each one airline industry being ruled by way of one to 3 airline vendors despite marketplace measurement.

Extra resources for Cost-Minimizing Choice Behavior in Transportation Planning: A Theoretical Framework for Logit Models (Advances in Spatial Science)

Example text

Vk C log G k /. Âvk C log G k /z2k H) kD1 K Y z1 pkk kD1 K Y z2 pkk ; kD1 and it follows that exp. Âvk C log G k // exp. G k / ; D PK pk D P K k k kD1 exp. Âvk C log G // kD1 exp. G / for some . ÂvK //. The generator function G can be specified in various ways to give different, dependent or independent, models. We give two examples. Âvk / Again the probability represents payoff (utility) maximizing behavior (Proposition 2). ˛m cQm . ˛ cQm . // m m exp. ckm / P : ckm / k exp. x/ D kD1 exp. 14) with costs ckm .

M1 =n; : : : ; mK =n/ where mk ; k D 1; : : : ; K; and n are integer numbers. 3) in Definition 1. Since p is assumed to be cost minimizing, it follows that K Y nOzk pk kD1 which can be written K X zOk log pk kD1 K Y nQz pk k ; kD1 K X zQk log pk : kD1 Hence, z D zQ is also an optimal solution of the linear program (because zO is optimal by assumption). Since zQk > 0; k D 1; : : : ; K, it follows from the complementary slackness theorem of linear programming that there are dual variables , and > 0, such that the dual constraints are satisfied with equality.

We arrive at the following definition of cost-minimizing behavior for the sample. Definition 5 (Cost-Minimizing Behavior for Samples of N Independent Decision Makers). d / is cost minimizing if and only if K X kD1 ck z1k Ä K X kD1 ck z2k H) K Y kD1 z1 pkk K Y z2 pkk : kD1 This is equivalent to Definition 1. 4). Hence, by defining cost-minimizing behavior for an N -sample of decision makers we obtain the choice probabilities for one single decision maker drawn at random from the population ˝. Thus AXIOM 1 together with AXIOM 2 determines the form of the probability distribution p completely.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.62 of 5 – based on 27 votes