By William P. Johnson MDDDS MS
This complete source offers all points of endodontics, either surgical and nonsurgical. The very newest fabrics and techniques utilized in delivering endodontic therapy are defined completely and successfully -- and are highlighted visually throughout the beneficiant use of illustrations, many in full-color. Key subject matters contain analysis, entry, operating size selection, instrumentation, obturation, retreatment of failed nonsurgical circumstances, flap layout, root-end resection, crypt administration, root finish filling, put up and center ideas, and middle placement.
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Additional info for Color Atlas of Endodontics
CCD-based digital radiography systems such as the Trophy RVG, Seamens Sidexis, Regam Sens-A-Ray, and Visualix Vixa all have been demonstrated to be similar in working length determination to D- and E-speed film. , Tokyo, Japan) in 1981. More recently, Soredex (Orion Corp. , Helsinki, Finland) has introduced an intraoral computed radiography system called the Digora. This system also uses the Fuji sensor and was first described in 1994 by Kashima. 63 It uses a flat imaging plate containing phosphor granules that fluoresce when exposed to ionizing radiation.
Products such as the "Endo-Ray II" (Figure 3-12) (Dentsply Rinn, Elgin, IL) may help produce more predictable results. This alignment device assists in making a parallel working length radiograph without removing the rubber dam clamp or files from the tooth. Dental students using hemostats produced acceptable radiographs in 66% of maxillary and 75% of mandibular teeth on patients undergoing endodontic treatment. 44 Because increased vertical angulation is often necessary when making maxillary radiographs, zygomatic arch interference becomes a significant problem in interpreting apical anatomy and determining working length.
71 Patients with disabilities or debilitating disorders such as Parkinson's disease may not be able to hold the film in place. Children also may have difficulty with this task. Because as many as 40% of deviations of canal foramen from the apical center are in Chapter Three FIGURE 3-19 Length Determination 59 Endodontic case treated with Soredex Digora digital radiography system. FIGURE 3-20 Gendex Den Optix storage phosphor system. ) FIGURE 3-21 Gendex DenOptix software interface. 72,73 Electronic devices such as electronic apex locators should not be used on patients who have cardiac pacemakers.