Cluster Computing: Praktische Einführung in das by Heiko Bauke

By Heiko Bauke

Das Buch ist eine praktische Einführung in das Hochleistungsrechnen auf Linux-Clustern. In vier Teilen (Grundlagen, Technik, Programmierung, Praxis) wird ausführlich erklärt, wie guy einen Haufen (Cluster) preiswerter Standard-PCs in einen Parallelcomputer verwandelt und diesen dann zur Lösung rechenintensiver Probleme einsetzt. Insbesondere enthält das Buch eine fundierte Einführung in MPI, dem grundlegenden Programmiermodell für Cluster-Computer. Dabei werden anhand konkreter Beispiele die wichtigsten Paradigmen paralleler Programmierung präsentiert. Vorgestellt werden außerdem Entwicklungswerkzeuge, die Fehlersuche in parallelen Programmen und nützliche Bibliotheken.

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So kann man physisch verteilten Speicher per Software durchaus als einen Speicher mit globalem Adressraum behandeln. F¨ur den Anwendungsprogrammierer stellt sich ein solcher Rechner als shared memory System dar, allerdings h¨angt Zugriffsgeschwindigkeit auf den Speicher dann von der Speicheradresse ab. Das nennt man NUMA f u¨ r non uniform memory access. Mehr zur Architektur von Parallelrechnern finden Sie in [139, 170]. 4 Beowulf. Beowulf [9] ist ein altenglisches Heldengedicht, das fru¨ heste erhaltene germanische Buchepos.

Zur Robustheit geho¨ rt auch, dass die ClientSoftware ein vorzeitiges Abschalten des Rechners u¨ berlebt“ und nach dem Ein” schalten dort weitermacht, wo sie unterbrochen wurde. Attraktivit¨at. Die Client-Software st¨ort den normalen Rechnerbetrieb nicht. Auf Unix-Maschinen l¨auft sie mit niedriger Priorit¨at im Hintergrund, f¨ur Windows Rechner ist eine Bildschirmschoner-Variante erh¨altlich. Unterst¨utzer m¨ussen allerdings sowohl Zeit (Installation) als auch Geld (Online-Kosten) investieren.

Diese Frage ist nicht seri¨os zu beantworten, da das Internet nicht zentral verwaltet wird und sich eine Menge Rechner nur tempor¨ar in das Internet einw¨ahlen. Der Antwort am n¨achsten kommt der Internet Domain Survey, der regelm¨assig die Gesamtzahl der Eintr¨age im weltweiten Domain Name Service (DNS) ermittelt, siehe [74]. Da nicht jeder Internet-Rechner einen DNS-Eintrag hat und hinter einem DNS-Eintrag viele Rechner stecken k¨onnen, liefert diese Z¨ahlung zumindest eine untere Schranke. Der Internet Domain Survey vom Januar 2005 ergab 317 646 084 DNS Eintr¨age.

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