By Igor Novikov, Vitaly Kisin

Igor Novikov has been hailed as "Russia's solution to Stephen Hawking." during this well known account of the cosmic value of black holes, he explores the houses and value of those mysterious phenomena, which characterize the main condensed kingdom of subject within the Universe. Black holes are shaped by way of the strength of gravity, warping area and time, crushing stars and maybe galaxies, too, until eventually they fall in on themselves. Novikov's attention-grabbing account illuminates this so much enigmatic characteristic of our Universe with exemplary readability, illustrated with a chain of encouraged caricature drawings.

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Dark solid line), the elliptical model of Croft ic Metzler (upper dashed), the semi-analytic model of Crittenden et al. (fainter solid), and the tidal stretch model of Catelan et al. (lower dot-dashed). The expected lensing signal is the lowest line. noise. Analytic methods are likely to be limited by the validity or otherwise of the simplifying assumptions, and neither general method can really be expected to include non-gravitational processes reliably in the near future. Thus it is probably best to be satisfied that we know the magnitude of the effect, and therefore not attempt to do straightforward weak lensing calculations from low-redshift samples.

N. Kaiser, ApJ 537, 555 (2001). 7. N. Kaiser, G. Squires and T. Broadhurst ApJ 449, 460 (1995). 8. K. Kuijken A&A 352, 355 (1999). 9. A. Luppino and N. Kaiser ApJ 475, 20 (1997). 10. C. MacKay (2001) h t t p : / / w o l . r a . phy. cam. a c . uk/mackay/Book. html 11. K. Ratnatunga, R. Griffiths and E. Ostrander AJ 118, 86 (1999) 12. A. Refregier and D. Bacon MNRAS submitted, (astro-ph/0105179). 13. J. Rhodes, A. J. Groth ApJ 536, 79 (2000). A. co Realistic self-consistent models of galaxies can be obtained by specifying the velocity field and solving the Euler equation semi-analytically.

One component is much larger than the other, and they have opposite values of e+ (always e x = 0 ) . 5. We obtain the results shown in Fig. 4 which show that again we also have very small residuals. In fact these residuals are entirely accounted for by the errors due to the finite number of noise realizations performed. 5. 4 Conclusions We have presented a conceptually simple method for estimating galaxy ellipticities, with carefully calculated uncertainty estimates. This method is intrinsically designed to cope with high noise levels on the input data and naturally allows bad fits to be identified from the residuals map.