By Sol M. Michaelson, Martino Grandolfo (auth.), M. Grandolfo, S. M. Michaelson, A. Rindi (eds.)
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Additional resources for Biological Effects and Dosimetry of Static and ELF Electromagnetic Fields
PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION To rationally review the literature and assess the implications of the reported results of exposure to electric and/or magnetic fields. it is essential to consider fundamental principles and concepts related to biomedical research in the laboratory and extrapolation to man. Experimental animal models are extensively used for the study of physical factors in the environment to assure human health and safety. The best we can do experimentally is to create an arbitrary set of conditions which we consider to be as relevant as possible for the purpose of the study.
From these, third-order correction terms can be computed, and so forth. ,series of infinite terms gives the exact solution of Maxwell's equations. Any finite series gives approximate solutions, which approach the exact one as the number of terms increases. On the other hand, it can also be shown that a fast convergence is raised when the dimensions of the system under consideration are smaller than the wavelength corresponding to the frequency of operation. In other words, at low frequencies a few terms are sufficient to calculate and H within an accuracy which is good enough for most practical purposes.
Proper dosimetry in experimental procedures and the importance of realistic scaling factors required for extrapolation of data obtained with small laboratory an ima 1s to man are clear ly requ ired. RISK ASSESSMENT There is disagreement concerning the biological effects and potential hazards of electric field exposure. There also is a serious philosophical question about the definition of hazard. One objective definition of injury is an irreversible change in biological function as observed at the organ or system level.