By Ulrike Bross
This booklet deals a tenet for "Technology Audit" workouts for the remodeling innovation structures of principal and jap eu international locations (CEECs). extra extra, the booklet provides the result of an exemplary software of this instruction within the box of biotechnology in Hungary. The authors - a gaggle of innovation re searchers of the Fraunhofer Institute for structures and Innovation learn (lSI), Germany, and of the Innovation learn Centre (IKU), Hungary - offer a valid idea for the id of technological strengths and weaknesses of the CEECs' industrially orientated examine platforms as a foundation for the layout of complicated innovation guidelines. After the corporation for financial Co-operation and improvement (OECD) had proposed a "Technology Audit" of Hungary in 1993, a pilot audit used to be conducted lower than their auspices. In parallel, the German Federal Ministry of schooling, Sci ence, learn and expertise (BMFT) recommend the belief of constructing the audit inspiration additional with a view to make it appropriate additionally in different imperative and jap eu international locations. They requested lSI to utilise the working OECD audits as a research ing resource and to see a entire audit method.
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Additional resources for Bio-Technology Audit in Hungary: Guidelines, Implementation, Results (Technology, Innovation and Policy (ISI))
Internal strengths and weaknesses restrict the possibilities for action of the enterprise, while future environmental factors form a point of reference to assess whether the actual capabilities match the arising challenges. The SWOT tool can be employed to prepare an in-depth analysis as well as to condense and convey the fmdings of the thorough audit (European Commission 1995: p. 261, Bartol/Martin 1994: p. 172). Also, technology audit can be used as a tool for professional investment decisions, for instance by venture capitalists.
4 Data Collection Concerning data collection methods the OECD Methodology concept emphasised the following aspects: - Core elements: interviews and site visits by several experts - Use oflocallanguage - Use of international standards in data collection - Explicit criteria and definitions (sectors, segments, competitiveness) - Selection of firms should include some poor performers. The sectoral studies carried out in Hungary were based primarily on wellestablished research instruments (cf. 1-2): written questionnaires and interviews.
G. patent analyses, export analyses as a function of technology intensity of the product) were not used. 1-2: Analysis and Evaluation Methods in the Sectoral Studies of the "Technology Audit" in Hungary Sectoral Audits Analysis and evaluation method A c D E • •• •• • •• Written questionnaire Enterprises 0 0 Research institutions Interviews Enterprises Research institutions •• •• •• •• •• • • • • • • • • • • 0 0 Expert discussions (with other institutions) 0 Data bank searches International comparisons Use of method B e 0 intensive (1 0-20 actors) 0 0 • limited (5-9 actors) none Written questionnaires proved to be a useful instrument of technology audit.