By Machtelt Garrels
No matter if you are simply beginning out with Linux or seeking to hone your current abilities, this e-book will give you the information you wish.
Read Online or Download Bash Guide for Beginners (Second Edition) PDF
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Extra resources for Bash Guide for Beginners (Second Edition)
OPTERR If set to the value 1, Bash displays error messages generated by the getopts built-in. OSTYPE A string describing the operating system Bash is running on. An array variable containing a list of exit status values from the processes in the PIPESTATUS most recently executed foreground pipeline (which may contain only a single command). If this variable is in the environment when bash starts, the shell enters POSIX POSIXLY_CORRECT mode. PPID The process ID of the shell's parent process. If set, the value is interpreted as a command to execute before the printing of each PROMPT_COMMAND primary prompt (PS1).
This example also demonstrates the use of different prompt settings by different users. In this case, red means danger. When you have a green prompt, don't worry too much. Note that source resourcefile is the same as . resourcefile. 2. 2. 1. Types of variables As seen in the examples above, shell variables are in uppercase characters by convention. 1. Global variables Global variables or environment variables are available in all shells. The env or printenv commands can be used to display environment variables.
Process substitution Process substitution is supported on systems that support named pipes (FIFOs) or the /dev/fd method of naming open files. It takes the form of <(LIST) or >(LIST) The process LIST is run with its input or output connected to a FIFO or some file in /dev/fd. The name of this file is passed as an argument to the current command as the result of the expansion. If the ">(LIST)" form is used, writing to the file will provide input for LIST. If the "<(LIST)" form is used, the file passed as an argument should be read to obtain the output of LIST.