Artificial Life Iii (Santa Fe Institute Studies in the by Christopher G. Langton

By Christopher G. Langton

Man made lifestyles is the examine of artificial platforms that convey behaviors attribute of usual residing platforms, reminiscent of self-organization, copy, improvement, or even evolution. It enhances the conventional organic sciences fascinated with the research of dwelling organisms via trying to synthesize and learn life-like behaviors inside pcs or different ”alternative” media. via extending the empirical origin upon which biology rests past the carbon-chain dependent existence that has developed in the world, man made lifestyles can give a contribution to the theoretical biology through finding ”life-as-we-know-it” in the higher context of ”life-as-it-could-be,” in any of its attainable actual incarnations.

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Expert polling may be accompanied by the following text. ‘‘The procedure of questionnaire filling: A. Please, put an appropriate numerical score in each cell of the questionnaire according to the estimation scale: (an estimation scale is given). B. The estimate has to reflect your knowledge of the subject (topic) of expertise (instead of your personal attitude to it). C. ’’ D. 3 E-Expertise with Semantic Differential Scales 35 • some tools of cognitive modeling, hierarchy analysis [99], evolutionary algorithms [91]; • certain elaboration procedures for recommendations on preventing and eliminating the causes of problem situations.

A moderator has to perform ‘‘rigid’’ control of electronic brainstorming. ); • approximate planning of electronic brainstorming by a moderator including its procedure and regulations; • rough estimation of possible deviations from the approximate plan of expertise procedure and specification of behavioral logic at deviation points (if possible); • generation and filling of an associated series of typical questionnaires on computer displays according to the plan of electronic brainstorming; • selection of appropriate groups of experts; • automatic choice of abstracts and key words corresponding to the subject domains and publications of experts; • mailing of notifications on electronic brainstorming (date and time) to experts and online negotiation of their participation; • electronic brainstorming conduct according to the plan (including questions’ formulation and general conduct by the moderator), acquisition of expert messages; • automatic semantic interpretation of the questions, statistical treatment of the text messages from experts, results’ demonstration in a dedicated window during an expert session; • electronic brainstorming termination by the moderator and preparation of the report.

Local normative acts. 4 Expert Forecasting At all times, people strive for reducing the impact of uncontrolled factors on the results of their activity (by acquiring additional information on the unknown or incompletely known). ). According to Merriam Webster Dictionary, a forecast is a prophecy, estimate, or prediction of a future happening or condition. There exist several groups of forecasting methods for practical application [101]. For example, these are extrapolation methods, strategic planning methods, expert appraisal methods, logical simulation methods.

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