By Professor Dr.-Ing. Heinz Brauer, Professor Dr. Yalamanchili B. G. Varma (auth.)
This publication has arisen at once from a direction on Air and Water pollutants keep watch over brought via the 1st named writer on the Technical college of Berlin. Extractions of this path were offered in Brazil, Turkey and India. It used to be on the Indian Institute of expertise of Madras the place the 1st named writer received in touch with Professor Varma, who grew to become out to be a suggestive, cooperative coauthor. This booklet is addressed basically to chemical, environmental and mechanical engineers, engaged within the layout and operation of apparatus for pollution keep watch over. however it will surely be worthy to chemists and physicists faced with the answer of environmental difficulties. additionally it's meant as a textual content publication for engineering classes on environmental defense. The aim of the booklet is the presentation of data on layout and operation of apparatus appropriate to the abatement of damaging emissions into air. The expertise of pollution regulate is of really younger age, however it has already accomplished a excessive measure of functionality, as a result study and advance ment paintings invested within the final a long time during this field.
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G '00 A /\ '\/\II ~ ... , ('wlthout • treatment \ 100 """- ~ ' v 0 1973 1971. 1975 '" - Fig. 15. BODs-load of waste water emitted by BASF AG into the river Rhine 1976 Biological and mechanical treatment of municipal and industrial waste waters has become common practice. Fig. 15 shows the BODs-load of the waste water released into the river Rhine by the BASF AG in Ludwigshafen before and after the new treatment plant had been put into operation . Since the BASF plant has started operation, the quality of the water of the river Rhine has markedly improved.
The measurements were made in three cities in the period from 1965 to 1972. The lowest value has been observed in the city of Cologne. This value is well below the official short-time standard. In the city of DuisburgHamborn, measurements show an SOz-concentration much higher than the standard, although a decreasing tendency is indicated. 3 mgjm 3 • Further data on the trend of SOz emissions have been reported by Lenhart  und Loblich . The reduction of sulfur dioxide emissions from coal fired power stations has been observed by Lange .
1 Description of an Industrial Plant A plant for material and energy conversion has been selected for analysis . Fig. 1 schematically describes such a plant. It consists of the following stages: 1. Entrance stage into which all necessary raw materials and other materials like air and water are introduced as a basis for the intended conversion of material and energy. 2. Material and energy conversion stages in which the processes are carried out that lead to the desired and to a certain number of undesired products.