AI in the 1980s and Beyond: An MIT Survey (Artificial by William Eric Leifur Grimson, Ramesh S. Patil

By William Eric Leifur Grimson, Ramesh S. Patil

This choice of essays via 12 individuals of the MIT employees, offers an inside of record at the scope and expectancies of present learn in a single of the world's significant AI facilities. The chapters on man made intelligence, professional structures, imaginative and prescient, robotics, and common language supply either a huge evaluation of present components of task and an evaluation of the sphere at a time of serious public curiosity and fast technological progress.

Contents: synthetic Intelligence (Patrick H. Winston and Karen Prendergast). KnowledgeBased structures (Randall Davis). Expert-System instruments and methods (Peter Szolovits). clinical analysis: Evolution of structures construction services (Ramesh S. Patil). man made Intelligence and software program Engineering (Charles wealthy and Richard C. Waters). clever typical Language Processing (Robert C. Berwick). automated Speech acceptance and figuring out (Victor W. Zue). robotic Programming and synthetic Intelligence (Tomas Lozano-Perez). robotic arms and Tactile Sensing (John M. Hollerbach). clever imaginative and prescient (Michael Brady). Making Robots See (W. Eric L. Grimson). independent cellular Robots (Rodney A. Brooks).

W. Eric L. Grimson, writer of From pictures to Surfaces: A Computational research of the Human Early imaginative and prescient System (MIT Press 1981), and Ramesh S. Patil are either Assistant Professors within the division of electric Engineering and laptop technology at MIT. AI within the Eighties and Beyond is integrated within the man made Intelligence sequence, edited by means of Patrick H. Winston and Michael Brady.

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26 Randall Davis time before knowledge-based systems arrived. " Does this refer to probability or to strength of belief? That is, does the rule indicate how likely it is that something is true, or does it refer to how strongly the rule author believed it? The two are quite different, as any gambler knows. A second difficulty lies in defining the "arithmetic" to use in combining them. What does "maybe + probably" add up to? Very likely? Very likely. The problem has been attacked by mathematicians and philosophers; one indication of its difficulty is the large number of solutions that have been suggested.

71] . In both these cases, the systems could do as well at some tasks as human experts. g. , how to do integration by parts, what features of a mass spectrum indicate the presence of CH 3 groups) . The terms "knowledge-based systems" and "expert systems" were in­ vented to describe programs such as these and their intellectual successors, to emphasize their reliance on much knowledge embedded in the program and on their utilization of expert human methods in attempting to achieve expert-level performance.

104-108. , 1985, "The role of frame-based representation in reasoning," Comm A CM, pp. 904-920. , 1986, A language for describing digital circuits, MS Thesis, MIT, Computer Science. , 1984, " Diagnosing circuits with state, an inher­ ently underconstrained problem," Proc AAAI-84, Austin, Texas, pp. 142-147. , 1975, "A framework for representing knowledge," The Psy­ chology of Computer Vision, edited by P. H. Winston, McGraw-Hill, pp. 211-277. , 1982, "Heuristic methods for imposing structure on ill-structured problems," Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, edited by P.

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