After the First Three Minutes: The Story of Our Universe by T. Padmanabhan

By T. Padmanabhan

The evolution of our Universe and the formation of stars and galaxies are mysteries that experience lengthy wondered scientists. fresh years have introduced new clinical figuring out of those profound and basic concerns. In energetic prose, Professor Padmanabhan paints an image of latest cosmology for the final reader. in contrast to different well known books on cosmology, After the 1st 3 mins doesn't gloss over information, or draw back from explaining the underlying strategies. in its place, with a lucid and casual variety, the writer introduces all of the appropriate heritage after which rigorously items jointly a fascinating tale of the evolution of our Universe. Padmanabhan leaves the reader with a cutting-edge photo of scientists' present realizing in cosmology and a prepared style of the thrill of this fast-moving technology. all through, no arithmetic is used and all technical jargon is obviously brought and strengthened in a convenient word list on the finish of the e-book. For basic readers who are looking to come to grips with what we actually do and do not find out about our Universe, this booklet presents a thrilling and uncompromising learn. Thanu Padmanabhan is a Professor at Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India. he's the recipient of various awards and writer of 3 books, constitution Formation within the Universe (Cambridge, 1994), Cosmology and Astrophysics via difficulties (Cambridge, 1996), and, including J.V. Narlikar, Gravity, Gauge Theories and Quantum Cosmology. he's additionally the writer of multiple hundred renowned technological know-how articles, a comic book strip serial and a number of other typical columns on astronomy, leisure arithmetic, and the historical past of technology.

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That is, two protons which are sufficiently close together will feel a nuclear force which is much stronger than their electrostatic repulsion. But the strong force is felt only when two particles are very close to each other. If two protons are separated by a distance of about 10-I 3 em, then the strong force is 100 times larger than the electrical force. But if the protons are moved apart to 1o- I2 em, then the strong force decreases by a factor of about 10 5 while the electrical force decreases only by 102 .

If the source is emitting radiation at a given wavelength (say, A. 0 ) and is moving towards us with some speed (say, v), then we will detect the radiation at a shorter wavelength (say, A. 1). Similarly, if the source is moving away from us, we will detect the radiation at a longer wavelength A. 2 . Of course the frequency of the wave will increase when the wavelength decreases and vice versa. When the wavelength increases, it is termed 'redshift'; when it decreases, we call it 'blueshift'. 9 The Doppler effect may be thought of as arising due to the compression of the wave crest in the direction of motion of the source.

Particles like protons, neutrons (and a vast majority of other particles seen in high energy collisions) are made of different combinations of these quarks. For example, a proton is made of two up-quarks and one down-quark, while a neutron is made of two down-quarks and one up-quark. Since all matter has protons and neutrons we might say that - indirectly - all matter contains up-quarks and down-quarks. The other four types of quarks are not present in the normal state of matter. However, they are needed as constituents of several other elementary particles which are produced in high energy collisions.

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