Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere: Chemistry and Physics of by Guy P. Brasseur, Susan Solomon

By Guy P. Brasseur, Susan Solomon

"[…] an attractive and well-written review of the present prestige of our wisdom of the composition of the center surroundings and the fundamental radiative, dynamical and photochemical approaches which preserve it."
(Bulletin American Meteorological Society)

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Additional info for Aeronomy of the Middle Atmosphere: Chemistry and Physics of the Stratosphere and Mesosphere (Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library)

Sample text

For many chemical processes, factor k varies with temperature. Exponents α, β, γ . . are independent of concentration and time, and are referred to as the order of the reaction with respect to reactants A, B, C, . , respectively. The overall order of the reaction is given by the sum α + β + γ + . . Note that α, β, γ, . . are not always the stoichoimetric coefficients a, b, c, . . as shown by laboratory experiments. Different experimental methods have been developed to derive reaction rates, but will not be presented here.

5 AERONOMY OF THE MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE Heterogeneous and Multiphase Reactions Reactions taking place on the surface of solid or liquid particles and inside liquid droplets play an important role in the middle atmosphere, especially in the lower stratosphere where sulfate aerosol particles and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are observed. The nature, properties and chemical composition of these particles are described in Chapters 5 and 6. Several parameters are commonly used to describe the uptake of gas-phase molecules into these particles: (1) the sticking coefficient s which is the fraction of collisions of a gaseous molecule with a solid or liquid particle that results in the uptake of this molecule on the surface of the particle; (2) the accommodation coefficient α which is the fraction of collisions that leads to incorporation into the bulk condensed phase, and (3) the reaction probability γ (also called the reactive uptake coefficient) which is the fraction of collisions that results in reactive loss of the molecule (chemical reaction).

1980). The fluorescence of NO in the γ bands represents a useful method of NO measurement in the lower thermosphere, as first pointed out by Barth (1966). 48 AERONOMY OF THE MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE Excited state chemistry is one of the most important aspects of classical chemistry as applied to the middle atmosphere. 10, all photolysis reactions involve at least temporary production of electronically excited species; thus the photochemistry of the atmosphere is closely tied to the excited states of a number of important species.

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